Chinh Do

StringBuilder is not always faster – Part 2 of 2

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29th September 2007

StringBuilder is not always faster – Part 2 of 2

In a previous article (“StringBuilder is not always faster), I provided some quick benchmark data and gave “rules of thumb” for when to use StringBuilder and when to use traditional string concatenations. In this follow-up article, I will attempt to provide a more detailed analysis.

If you don’t want to bother with the details, jump directly to the conclusions here.

A Look at the Generated MSIL

A reader, Matt, suggested that it’s possible the compiler may have noticed that I never use the generated test objects in my benchmark code and not created them. That would definitely invalidated my test results!

Here’s the original benchmark code:

for (int i = 0; i <= 1000000; i++)
    // Concat strings 3 times using StringBuilder
    StringBuilder s = new StringBuilder();

And this one, using traditional concatenation, took slightly less time (1344 milliseconds):

for (int i = 0; i <= 1000000; i++)
    // Concat strings 3 times using traditional concatenation
    string s = i.ToString();
    s = s + i.ToString();
    s = s + i.ToString();

According to Lutz Roeder’s .NET Reflector (great tool), the answer is no. Here’s the IL from Reflector:

.maxstack 2
.locals init (
    [0] int32 i,
    [1] class [mscorlib]System.Text.StringBuilder s,
    [2] string V_2,
    [3] bool CS$4$0000)
L_0000: nop
L_0001: ldc.i4.0
L_0002: stloc.0
L_0003: br.s L_003b
L_0005: nop
L_0006: newobj instance void [mscorlib]System.Text.StringBuilder::.ctor()
L_000b: stloc.1
L_000c: ldloc.1
L_000d: ldloca.s i
L_000f: call instance string [mscorlib]System.Int32::ToString()
L_0014: callvirt instance class [mscorlib]System.Text.StringBuilder [mscorlib]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
L_0019: pop
L_001a: ldloc.1
L_001b: ldloca.s i
L_001d: call instance string [mscorlib]System.Int32::ToString()
L_0022: callvirt instance class [mscorlib]System.Text.StringBuilder [mscorlib]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
L_0027: pop
L_0028: ldloc.1
L_0029: ldloca.s i
L_002b: call instance string [mscorlib]System.Int32::ToString()
L_0030: callvirt instance class [mscorlib]System.Text.StringBuilder [mscorlib]System.Text.StringBuilder::Append(string)
L_0035: pop
L_0036: nop
L_0037: ldloc.0
L_0038: ldc.i4.1
L_0039: add
L_003a: stloc.0
L_003b: ldloc.0
L_003c: ldc.i4 0xf4240
L_0041: cgt
L_0043: ldc.i4.0
L_0044: ceq
L_0046: stloc.3
L_0047: ldloc.3
L_0048: brtrue.s L_0005
L_004a: ldc.i4.0
L_004b: stloc.0
L_004c: br.s L_0078
L_004e: nop
L_004f: ldloca.s i
L_0051: call instance string [mscorlib]System.Int32::ToString()
L_0056: stloc.2
L_0057: ldloc.2
L_0058: ldloca.s i
L_005a: call instance string [mscorlib]System.Int32::ToString()
L_005f: call string [mscorlib]System.String::Concat(string, string)
L_0064: stloc.2
L_0065: ldloc.2
L_0066: ldloca.s i
L_0068: call instance string [mscorlib]System.Int32::ToString()
L_006d: call string [mscorlib]System.String::Concat(string, string)
L_0072: stloc.2
L_0073: nop
L_0074: ldloc.0
L_0075: ldc.i4.1
L_0076: add
L_0077: stloc.0
L_0078: ldloc.0
L_0079: ldc.i4 0xf4240
L_007e: cgt
L_0080: ldc.i4.0
L_0081: ceq
L_0083: stloc.3
L_0084: ldloc.3
L_0085: brtrue.s L_004e
L_0087: ret

Size of Concatenated Values and StringBuilder with Initial Capacity

More questions from Matt: how does the performance curve change if the concatenated values are larger? And what if you seed the StringBuilder object with an initial capacity?

To answer the questions, I wrote some more benchmarks (complete source code at the bottom of this article) to compare three different methods of concatenation:

  • “+” concatenation: This is the traditional a + b + c method.
  • StringBuilder: Create a StringBuilder object using the default constructor and calling Append().
  • StringBuilder/Pre-allocated: Create a StringBuilder object and preallocate the initial capacity so that it does not need to expand later.

String Size = 10

The chart below shows elapsed times (ms) of the three concatenation methods, with the concatenated string size equaled to 10 characters

StringBuilder Benchmark - Elapsed time vs Concatenations - String Size 10

As the chart illustrates, when the size of the concatenated value is small (10 characters in this test), “+” concatenation (blue line) performs faster than StringBuilder until the number of concatenations reaches 6. After 6, StringBuilder starts to work exponentially faster.

However, when compared with the StringBuilder/Pre-allocated method, StringBuilder starts to perform as fast as “+” concatenation much earlier: at 3 concatenations.

Note: The orange line for StringBuilder is not very linear. My guess is that it’s due to the need to allocate space as needed. The memory allocation itself will consume CPU cycles. The default StringBuilder constructor will allowcate 16 bytes initially. Thereafter, it will allocate two times the current capacity whenever needed.

String Size = 100

StringBuilder Benchmark - Elapsed time vs Concatenations - String Size 100

When the concatenated value is 100 characters, the all three methods perform very similarly up to three concatenations, then StringBuilder/Pre-allocated pulls ahead at 4 concatenations.

Concatenated String Size = 1000

StringBuilder Benchmark - Elapsed time vs Concatenations - String Size 1000

At 1000 characters, things begine a little bit more interesting: StringBuilder/Pre-allocated is faster in all cases (although the difference is very small until about 6 concatenations). Since it may not be always possible or practical to know the final string size ahead of time, for this graph, I also added two more series to show what happens if you over-estimate or under-estimate the final capacity. As expected, there is a performance penalty for both. The more inaccurate your estimated capacity is, the higher of a performance penalty you will get.

What about String.Concat?

Lars Wilhelmsen asked “What about string.Concat?” According to my research, string.Concat is basically identical to “+” used on a single line.


string s = "a" + 
                    class="str">"b" + "c";

Is the same (same generated IL) as this:

string s = string.Concat(
 class="str">"a", "b", "c");

But not this:

string s = "a";
s = s + "b";
s = s + "c";

Remember, the “+” must be on the same logical line, otherwise, the compiler will convert each line into a separate string.Concat operation, resulting in slower performance.

AJ has written a post detailing string.Concat here. Thanks, AJ, for pointing it out.

And String.Format?

Flyswat wanted to know about string.Format. I did some quick benchmark code again. The string.Format code below took 58 milliseconds to run 100,000 iterations:

string s = string.Format(
          class="str">"Value: {0}", strVal);

While this code, using “+” concatenation, only took 9 milliseconds (also 100,000 iterations):

string s = "Value: " + strVal;

According to the above numbers, string.Format is significantly slower than “+” concatenations. The difference in speed is similar between s.AppendFormat(“Value: {0}”, strVal) and s.Append(“Value: ” + strVal). I have used String.Format a lot in my code and I have not thought about this performance penalty. It does make sense. String.Format (or StringBuilder.AppendFormat) has to scan the string looking for format specifiers… that takes time. String.Format is very useful to make the code easier to read or when you actually need to format numbers. Even with this new data, I will not neccessarily shy away from using string.Format. I will however definitely be much more observant when using it, especially when used inside a loop or performance critical code path.


The new benchmarks do point to StringBuilder/Pre-allocated as the fastest method regardless of number of concatenations, when the concatenated string value is large (1000 characters).

With that in mind, here are my slightly modified rules of thumbs for string concatenation. Remember, “rules of thumb” are short statements to provide general princicles, and may not be accurate for every single situation. For performance criticial code, you should consider running some benchmarks/profiling yourself.

  • For 1-4 dynamic concatenations, use traditional “+” concatenation.
  • For 5 or more dynamic concatenations, use StringBuilder.
  • When using StringBuilder, try to provide the starting capacity as close to the final string size as possible.
  • When building a big string from several string literals, use either the @ string literal or the + operator.
  • For performance critical code, consider running your own benchmarks

Additional Reading


The benchmarks in this article were run on a Pentium 4 2.4 GHz CPU, with 2GB of RAM. With .NET framework: 2.0.

Source Code for Benchmarks

Source code here.

kick it on

posted in Dotnet/.NET - C#, Programming | 10 Comments

28th September 2007

My New & Improved Samsung i730 Windows Mobile Phone

A few days ago, my old and trusty Samsung SCH-i730 Windows Mobile phone decided to bite the dust. One moment, I pulled it out of my pocket to look at the time and it was dead… just like that. No sound. No display. It was an eerie sight. I tried a soft reset, changed battery, hard reset, nothing.

Luckily, since I had purchased insurance for the phone (the only time I purchased insurance for an electronic gadget), I called Verizon. Two days later, I now have a brand new i730.

Samsung SCH-i730 box

Normally, this would be a none-event. However, something interesting happened: the replacement phone works much better than the one I used to have. Read about the problems I had with the old phone here. On the new phone, everything runs noticeably faster. There is no more unexplained slowness. Audio during phone calls now works as expected with no cut outs.

New Samsung SCH-i730 Windows Mobile Phone

I have two theories on why:

  • I had upgraded my old phone to Windows Mobile 2005 and that version of the Windows Mobile OS was causing problems on the phone
  • I had a defective phone

I will never know for sure the real cause, since the old phone is no more.

Samsung i730 owners out there, if your phone doesn’t seem to work quite right and have the problems described here, either try to downgrade to Windows Mobilde 2003, or if you have not upgraded to WM2005, you just may have a defective device.

posted in Gadgets, Technology, Windows Mobile / Pocket PC | 0 Comments

20th September 2007

11 Visual Studio 2005 IDE Tips and Tricks to Make You a More Productive Developer

Here are my top 11 tips and tricks for getting things done faster with the Visual Studio 2005 IDE (without using third-party add-ins or upgrading hardware… that’s another article). Yes, some of these tips and tricks may fall into the "obvious" category, but I think they are worth repeating. I continue to see too many .NET developers not taking advantage of even the basic time-saving techniques.

I work mostly with C# so some of these tips may not apply to, or work differently with other Visual Studio languages such as Visual Basic.NET.

(1) Express Yourself with Regular Expressions

Regular Expressions is a powerful and portable text search/replace/transformation language. Learning basic Regular Expressions will immediately make you a more productive developer/power user. Regular Expressions is supported in Visual Studio’s various Search/Replace dialogs. Any Regular Expressions skill you learn will also be useful in numerous other applications and settings: other text editors, unix shell/egrep, PowerShell, input validation, and Google search (heh, just kidding on that last item).

You can also use Regular Expressions with macros and automation via the Regex class.

Here’s an example of how you can save time with Regular Expressions in Visual Studio. Say, you just wrote and tested a SQL in a Query Tool and you want to turn it into a  string variable in your C# class? Here’s how:

First, paste the SQL text into the editor. Make sure to remove any unwanted indentation on the left side of the text (SHIFT-Tab):

Regular Expressions Example - 1 

Then hit CTRL+H to bring up the Find and Replace Dialog and fill it out like this:

Regular Expressions Example - 2 

Note: For VB.NET, in the “Find and Replace Dialog Window”, change the value in
“Replace With” box: from {[ + “\1″ ]}… to {[ & “\1″ _ ]}. Thanks to berkx for this info.

Choose Replace All. Fix a couple of lines, sit back and admire your beautiful work:

Regular Expressions Example - 3 

Explanation? Basically, the "Find what" expression above matches the content of each line and give it a numbered "tag". The "Replace with" expression then replaces each line with the first tagged value (\1), wrapped around in + " ". Click the fly-out (triangle) button next to each box to display a cheat-sheet of frequently used expressions. Oh, and don’t worry about the "+" string concatenations in the example, the compiler knows to optimize that syntax.

Once you’ve created a few Search/Replace expressions like the above, create macros out of them and assign to shortcuts.

Here are some of the Regex transformations I use most often when writing code:

  • Surrounds each line with (example above).
  • Transform a list of values separated by newlines into a coma-delimited list (used in array initializers or SQL where clause).
  • Put double quotes around each value in a coma-separated list.

Tools to help you write/test Regular Expressions:

(2) Take (Keyboard) Shortcuts

Using keyboard shortcuts is the best way to get things done faster in Visual Studio (and most other computer applications for that matter).

Below are my favorite Visual Studio keyboard shortcuts (I am leaving out the really obvious ones like F5).

  • CTRL+ALT+L: View Solution Explorer. I use Auto Hide for all of my tool windows to maximize screen real estate. Whenever I need to open the Solution Explorer, it’s just a shortcut away. Related shortcuts: CTRL+ALT+X (Toolbox), F4 (Properties), CTRL+ALT+O (Output), CTRL+\, E (Error List), CTRL+\, T (Task List).
  • F12: Go to definition of a variable, object, or function.
  • SHIFT+F12: Find all references of a function or variable.
  • F7: Toggle between Designer and Source views.
  • CTRL+PgDn: Toggle between Design and Source View in HTML editor.
  • F10: Debug – step over. Related debugging shortcuts: F11 (debug – step into), SHIFT-F11 (debug – step out), CTRL-F10 (debug – run to cursor). F9 (toggle breakpoint).
  • CTRL+D or CTRL+/: Find combo (see section on Find Combo below).
  • CTRL+M, O: Collapse to Definitions. This is usually the first thing I do when opening up a new class.
  • CTRL+K, CTRL+C: Comment block. CTRL+K, CTRL-U (uncomment selected block).
  • CTRL+-: Go back to the previous location in the navigation history.
  • ALT+B, B: Build Solution. Related shortcuts: ALT+B, U (build selected Project), ALT+B, R (rebuild Solution).
  • CTRL+ALT+Down Arrow: Show dropdown of currently open files. Type the first few letters of the file you want to select.
  • CTRL+K, CTRL+D: Format code.
  • CTRL+L: Delete entire line.
  • CTRL+G: Go to line number. This is useful when you are looking at an exception stack trace and want to go to the offending line number.
  • SHIFT+ALT+Enter: Toggle full screen mode. This is especially useful if you have a small monitor. Since I upgraded to dual 17" monitors, I no longer needed to use full screen mode.
  • CTRL+K, X: Insert "surrounds with" code snippet. See Snippets tip below.
  • CTRL+B, T: Toggle bookmark. Related: CTRL+B, N (next bookmark), CTRL+B, P (prev bookmark).

The complete list of default shortcuts is available from VS 2005 Documentation. You can also download/print reference posters from Microsoft: C# Keyboard Reference Poster, VB.NET Keyboard Reference Poster.

(3) Make New Shortcuts

There is something you do a lot in Visual Studio and there is no shortcut for it? Create one. Here’s how:

  • Choose Tools/Options and select Environment/Keyboard.
  • Type in something into "Show commands containing" to get a list of matching commands. If there is already a shortcut for the selected command, it’ll be displayed in "Shortcuts for selected command".
  • To assign a new shortcut to the selected command, put the cursor in "Press shortcut keys" and press the shortcut key or key combinations desired.

Visual Studio Options - Keyboard 

Have a custom Macro that you run often? Assign it to a keyboard shortcut. Here are some of my custom keyboard shortcuts:

  • CTRL+Num, T: Show the Test View.
  • CTRL+Num, D: Start debugging the selected Unit Test in Test View.
  • CTRL+’, L: "Collapse all in Solution Explorer " macro (see Macros section below).
  • CTRL+’, S: "Surrounds each line with" Macro.
  • CTRL+’, C: Compare with previous Source Control version.

(4) Use Code Snippets

Save time typing repetitive code by using Code Snippets. There are two types of Snippets in Visual Studio 2005: Expansion and SurroundsWith. To use Expansion Snippets, type the Snippet shortcut (not to be confused with keyboard shortcuts), and press Tab twice.

For example, the "for" Snippet is an Expansion Snippet. To use it, type "for"…

'for' Expansion Snippet Step 1 

Then press Tab, Tab:

'for' Expansion Snippet Step 2 

I find SurroundsWith Snippets more useful though. An example SurroundsWith Snippet is "#region". First, select a block of code:

SurroundsWith Snippet Step 1 

Then, type CTRL+K, CTRL+S and "#re":

SurroundsWith Snippet Step 2 

Then hit Enter:

SurroundsWith Snippet Step 3 

Here are my favorite Snippets:

  • #region: Regions is a great way to organize your code.
  • using: If you create an IDisposable object, you should use the "using" pattern. In addition to the basic "using" Snippet, I also created several variations for TransactionScope, and IDataReader.
  • try/catch
  • {}
  • /// <summary>$end$</summary>

More info:

(5) State Your Preferences

Find yourself constantly switching to the Design view every time you create/open an ASPX page? Cannot locate your current file in the Solution Explorer? Easy… just change the right settings and never think about it again.

Here are the some settings in Visual Studio that can save you time:

  • Open HTML pages in Source View: Tools/Options/HTML Designer/Start pages in.
  • Track the current file in Solution Explorer: Tools/Options/Projects and Solutions/Track Active Item in Solution Explorer.
  • Change the Start page or get rid of it: Tools/Options/Environment/Startup.
  • Change the default font-size to a smaller size so you can see more code. My editor font setting is ProFontWindows at size 9.
  • Turn of animations: Uncheck Tools/Options/Environment/Animate environment tools.

(6) "Attach to Process" to Start Debugging ASP.NET

Most ASP.NET developers use the standard F5 (Debug/Start Debugging) to start debugging from Visual Studio. However, there is a much faster way to start debugging if you already have an instance of your web application running. Just attach to it instead:

  • Choose Debug/Attach to Process.
  • Select the "aspnet_wp.exe" process and choose Attach.

Or, for keyboarders:

  • ALT+D, P, "as", Enter.

Debugging this way is faster because you skip the often-lengthy compilation step, and you don’t have to navigate from the start page to the actual page that you want to debug.

(7) Stop Conditionally (Conditional Breakpoints)

How often have you found yourself repeatedly stepping through a loop while debugging, waiting to get to a specific loop value (because the bug only occurs with that specific value)? With Conditional Breakpoints, you don’t have to do that. Just set a Breakpoint Condition.

Set the Breakpoint. Right click on the Breakpoint indicator (red circle), and choose Condition:

Breakpoint Condition Step 1 

Set the condition (any valid C# expression):

Breakpoint Condition Step 2 

Another debugging productivity trick I use is to override ToString() to return a useful summary of your objects. The Debugger uses the value returned by ToString in various Debug windows such as Watch Window. You can also use the DebuggerDisplay attribute.

(8) Employ Task List Tokens

Use Task List tokens such as TODO and HACK to quickly mark incomplete code or code that requires further attention. This allows you to keep flowing and skip over the details, but at the same time ensures that you will not forget to go back and finish up.

A shortcoming with Visual Studio 2005’s Task List is that it only shows the items in the current file. You can get around this by using the Find in Files feature and search for "// TODO".

(9) Go Directly to Any File with the Find Combo Box

This is the Find dropdown that is on the Standard Toolbar, not the Find dialog. Use the shortcut CTRL+D to activate the Find dropdown in normal mode. Use CTRL+/ to activate the Find dropdown in command mode (with ">" prepended… this doesn’t work sometimes for me).

Find Combo 

To quickly go to a file, type CTRL+D, >open  <start of file name>. Intellisense works here just like in the Command Window. "of" (short for "open file") can be used instead of open. Compare this with opening Solution Explorer, expand the correct folder/project, and visually hunt for the file you need.

With the Find Combo, you can also execute commands, macros, find text, etc. More info:

(10) Type Ahead (Incremental Search) in Lists

Type-ahead search works in many Visual Studio lists such as Solution Explorer, Active Files Combo (CTRL+ALT+Down Arrow), Add References, Class View, Attach to Process, Test View, etc.

To see how it works, it’s best to try it yourself. Open the Solution Explorer and start typing the first few letters of a visible file.

(11) Automate with Macros and Visual Studio Automation

I save this for last because I think macros and Automation have the potential to give you the biggest productivity booster, but also require the most initial time investment.

For many developers, the most effective way to take advantage of macros is to find and use or customize someone else’s macros.

If you want to get started with writing your own macros, the first feature you should get familiarize yourself with is the Macro Recording feature (shortcut CTRL+SHIFT+R).

For more info:

Here are some useful macros for you to start with:

Additional reading

posted in Dotnet/.NET - C#, Programming | 94 Comments

13th September 2007

Search Your Google Reader RSS Feeds

I have been using Google Reader since the 9/2006 release. It’s one of my favorite apps. One of the feature that was missing from Reader that I wished it had was Search. Well, Reader is now complete with a Search feature!

My initial testing indicates that it works well. I could not locate any help page that describes the complete search syntax, but most basic Google search syntax seem to work fine. Below are some observations.

Common words such as “where”, “how” are not excluded like regular Google Search:

Google Reader Search - common words

Phrase searches are supported:

Google Reader Search - phrases

Negative terms are supported. Example: bass -music.

The OR operator doesn’t work. Example: i730 OR i830.

posted in Reviews, Software/tools, Technology | 1 Comment

11th September 2007

Windows Mobile Device Center

In Windows Vista, Windows Mobile Device Center replaces ActiveSync. I just found out today when I tried to set up a bluetooth link between my home PC and Samsung i730. The process to set up is easy enough. Just download the installer from Microsoft, run it, and follow on-screen instructions.

My initial impression is that WMDC looks a lot sleaker than ActiveSync:

Windows Mobile Device Center - Welcome Screen

WMDC’s beauty is only skin deep however. There appears to be no new major features. I was hoping that synchronization would work with Vista’s built-in Calendar and Contacts but no… that would make too much sense, would it? I hate to have to install Microsoft Office just to be able to look at a Calendar and a Contact list. I now only have Office at home on a Virtual PC that I fires up once in a long while when I do need Word or Excel.

Since I started using Plaxo, I can access my calendar and contacts from any Internet connected PC or mobile device so I don’t really need to have my calendar and contacts sync’ed to my home PC.

Oh, and guess what, it’s not possible to sync your music library from Windows Media Player 11 to your mobile device over bluetooth. Argg!

posted in Gadgets, Technology, Windows Mobile / Pocket PC | 0 Comments

7th September 2007

Watch YouTube Videos on Windows Mobile Pro/Samsung SCH-i730

Point your browser to and follow the instructions there to install TCPMP (The Core Pocket Media Player), Flash Plug-in. Complete instructions here.

Source: HowardForums.

This works great on my Samsung SCH-i730.

YouTube on Samsung SCH-i730

posted in Gadgets, Technology, Windows Mobile / Pocket PC | 1 Comment

6th September 2007

Samsung SCH-i760

It looks like Samsung is finally coming out with an upgrade for the SCH-i730 Windows Mobile Phone, in the form of the SCH-i760. Major new features include Windows Mobile 6, side-sliding keyboard and a built-in camera. Currently the i760 is not officially on Verizon Wireless’ web site yet.

Don’t know about you but I think this one looks a bit on the ugly side. Still, I really like my i730 and when I will certainly consider upgrading to the i760 when the time comes.

Samsung SCH-i760

More info:

Related Posts

posted in Gadgets, Technology, Windows Mobile / Pocket PC | 3 Comments

1st September 2007

Watch Live TV on Your Windows Mobile Phone/Pocket PC

Being a news junky that I am, I love being able to listen to the news while driving around, or even while at the beach. I have found that my Samsung i730 Windows Mobile phone, in conjunction with the unlimited EDVO data plan from Verizon Wireless, let me watch the news in glorious color, virtually anywhere. Yes, there is just something neat about being able to watch BBC World News while sitting alone on a empty beach at night. Perhaps it’s the combination of being far away from civilization, yet at the same time connected to the world.

BBC News

iPhone owners, sorry… no streaming videos for you. But you’re probably too busy looking at the phone itself, admiring its beauty, to have time for anything else anyway.

(Oops, my iPhone envy is showing.)

Below are my favorite video streams for your enjoyment (updated Jan 18, 2008).



  • Weather+ – US and Canada weather forecasts).

For more channels, go to:

I only tested the above links on my i730, they should work for other Windows Mobile devices such as Verizon XV6700, or the new MOTO Q 9m.

WARNING – After further research, I found that Verizon’s EVDO policy officially prohibits video streaming, so there is a chance that if you use too much bandwidth, they may decide to terminate your account. So, use video streaming at your own risk! The limit seems to be about 10GB. You can monitor your data usage by logging into the Verizon Wireless’ My Account service. There is apparently also a way to monitor your data usage with a Verizon software application called VZAccess Manager.

Update 10/25/2007

Verizon has just settled with New York regard its practice of terminating users who exceeds “unlimited” bandwidth.

Update 1/7/2009

Refreshed links. Fixed link to Streaming PDA.

posted in Gadgets, Technology, Windows Mobile / Pocket PC | 16 Comments